MTA Law Working Papers

A Jogtudományi Intézet műhelytanulmányai

Szajbély Katalin: Religious Symbols and Clothing in Educational Institutions – Diverging Standards in the Practice of the UN Human Rights Committee and the European Court of Human Rights

In today's diverse Europe, the wearing of religious symbols is an increasingly current issue. In recent years, Judaeo-Christian symbols have been challenged at international human rights forums, as have symbols (including attires that cover the entire face or body) of the Muslim communities, which make up around 4% of Europe's population . The intersectionality of external manifestations of religious belief, and in particular the wearing of Muslim religious symbols cannot be overlooked. When a Muslim woman is discriminated against because of a headscarf (or other traditional head covering or dress), discrimination typically involves three elements: religion, gender and (real or perceived) national/ethnic origin, which are linked together to form a complex discrimination ground that can have a decisive influence not only on the social integration of the persons directly concerned, but also of entire generations.