jtiblog

Blogsite of the Institute for Legal Studies

Voting at embassies and consulates during the 2022 parliamentary elections in Hungary - New problems caused, and long-existing concerns intensified by the COVID-19 pandemic

2022. May 10. 11:55
Judit Takács
Law Student, ELTE Faculty of Law
Voting at embassies and consulates during the 2022 parliamentary elections in Hungary - New problems caused, and long-existing concerns intensified by the COVID-19 pandemic

On 3 April 2022 Hungary organised its first parliamentary elections since the appearance of COVID-19. As the country had not staged any general elections during the pandemic before, this was the first time that it had to face and answer to the new challenges of conducting a general vote under the special conditions entailed by the public health emergency. (Nonetheless, by-elections had been held since the beginning of the pandemic, before the 2022 general elections, like the parliamentary by-elections in October 2020 in Tiszaújváros. Besides, the April elections were not the only ones held in 2022 either, as on 8 May 2022 by-elections of some mayors were conducted in eleven smaller settlements. Those by-elections were originally scheduled to November 2020 but were postponed due to the announcement of the second stage of state of emergency under the pandemic.) The coronavirus related problems practically cover the whole electoral process, including the election campaign, sanitary concerns at the polling stations, the method of ballot counting, exercising the right to vote under quarantine or voting from abroad.

Primary election in the shadow of the pandemic

2022. April 19. 9:51
Lili Karácsony
Law Student, ELTE Faculty of Law
Primary election in the shadow of the pandemic

The coronavirus disease (COVID19) posed unprecedented challenges to our society in all aspects of life. It caused enormous changes in our everyday routines, but it also presented grave challenges to the governments of all countries and raised several questions related to the faults of legislative solutions. Within a few days, the world as we knew it changed completely, and even the most common activities became sources of danger, and therefore required rapid and efficient regulations. Many fundamental rights had to be re-evaluated and limited in favour of society’s interest that undoubtedly had significant impacts on elections as well. 

AI-Driven Healthcare Technologies and Algorithmic Gender Bias: A Need for Data Feminism - An Overview of Pin Lean Lau’s Seminar Talk at TK MILAB

2022. March 28. 12:19
Márton Vida
BA student, CEU
AI-Driven Healthcare Technologies and Algorithmic Gender Bias: A Need for Data Feminism - An Overview of Pin Lean Lau’s Seminar Talk at TK MILAB

Pin Lean Lau held the final talk of the Artificial Intelligence National Laboratory (MILAB) online seminar series in 2021. She is a researcher at the Brunel University of London, and holds a PhD in Law from Central European University. She introduced an ongoing project of hers concerning the regulation of AI bias in healthcare. Her main goal was to explore how AI bias may occur in healthcare technologies, and how such biases may be avoided through better regulation and data science.

'Do you feel in charge?' Underlying assumptions behind legal information retrieval - An Overview of Jakub Harašta Seminar at TK MILAB

2022. March 21. 14:40
Rand Al Hussaini
trainee, CSS ILS
'Do you feel in charge?' Underlying assumptions behind legal information retrieval - An Overview of Jakub Harašta Seminar at TK MILAB

As part of the TK MILAB online research seminar series, Jakub Harašta held a seminar on the issue of legal information retrieval, focusing on the assumptions behind legal information retrieval, his main argument was whether the retrieved information has any useful value or relevance to the users, how the data are presented to the users, and how the assumptions can be communicated. In addition, the question of transparency and the necessity it holds. Consequently, he advocated the need for data feminism. Intersectional feminism, he asserts, can reorient the way we think about and manage algorithmic data in healthcare, as well as challenge and modify power differentials that impact bias and under-representation dynamics.

In Search of Effectiveness and Fairness in Proving Algorithmic Discrimination in EU law - An Overview of Ljupcho Grozdanovski’s Seminar at TK MILAB

2021. August 09. 22:32
Márton Vida
CEU, BA student
In Search of Effectiveness and Fairness in Proving Algorithmic Discrimination in EU law - An Overview of Ljupcho Grozdanovski’s Seminar at TK MILAB

As part of the TK MILAB - Institute for Legal Studies research seminar series, Ljupcho Grozdanovski held a seminar on the legal issues of proving discrimination as caused by the use of AI. Focusing on proof and evidence, his main argument was that current EU law fails to satisfy the requirement of effectiveness on the side of the claimants, and that of fairness on the side of the respondents. As a result, he advocated the lifting of algorithmic opacity and a revision of the notion of human agency, so that the requirements of a fair trial and due process are met.

The role of the historical constitution in Hungarian constitutional law

2021. April 22. 11:26
Anna Gera
joghallgató ELTE ÁJK
The role of the historical constitution in Hungarian constitutional law

The Fundamental Law of Hungary, adopted by the majority votes of conservative parties twenty years after the democratic regime change in 1989, contains an article that provides the following: “The provisions of the Fundamental Law shall be interpreted in accordance with their purposes, the National Avowal contained therein and the achievements of our historic constitution.”[1] As the Fundamental Law is regarded to be the constitution of Hungary, this rule creates a strong bond between the  historical legal tradition and the legislation in force, and does so with a concept of “the achievements of our historic constitution” which is yet to be defined. Although the fact that the probable intention of the constitution-drafter Parliament can be identified by reading the preparatory works, the current practice faces challenges in interpreting the aforementioned constitutional provision.

Migration and the rise of populism: changes in the migration policy of Germany and Italy

2021. February 16. 23:24
Andrea Crescenzi
Réka Friedery
researcher, Institute for International Legal Studies (ISGI), National Research Council of Italy (CNR); research fellow, Centre for Social Sciences Institute for Legal Studies (CSS ILS)
Migration and the rise of populism: changes in the migration policy of Germany and Italy Migration and the rise of populism: changes in the migration policy of Germany and Italy

Migration policy overlaps other policy areas, for example integration policy, interior policy, defence policy and anti-discrimination policy. As a response to the sudden influx of migrants in 2015, and parallel to rising populistic movements, Germany and Italy started to adapt radical policies and measures in connection with immigration. Italy, as a frontline country, and Germany, as the destination country have adopted permissive measures as well as restrictive measures. Hence, in the following we analyse some of the main measures from the above mentioned areas to demonstrate that they intended either to thwart the rise of populistic movements in connection with migration or were favoured by populistic movements in the sense that they intended to curb immigration.

Some Thoughts About National Restrictions on Free Movement Between Member States During the COVID-19 Pandemic

2020. August 07. 22:34
Réka Friedery
research fellow, CSS Institute for Legal Studies
Some Thoughts About National Restrictions on Free Movement Between Member States During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Not long ago, the European Union was confronted by an influx of migrants where Member States reacted with different measures, and the EU saw many of its Member States turning to border control to handle third-country migration. However, this time not a new migration wave but an epidemic has resulted in never-before-seen protection measures not only in the EU but worldwide.  Although in recent years the EU has faced several health issues such as the pandemic influenza (H1N1) or the E. coli outbreak in Germany, the Covid-19 pandemic generated such a threat that Member States were forced to restrict free movement among themselves on the ground of public health. Nevertheless, free movement of persons between Member States and the limitation of this freedom have multiple layers and some might wonder whether such restrictions are compatible with EU law.

Hate Speech in Political Communication

2020. July 20. 22:23
Judit Bayer
Associate professor, Budapest Business School, Faculty of International Relations; Schumann Fellow, University of Münster
Hate Speech in Political Communication

Political speech is free. At the same time, one should be aware that it transmits powerful messages to people who feel represented. Political correctness prevented the dissemination of racist allegations in the second half of the 20th century, and beyond. In recent decades, this kind of political correctness has been labelled by populistic politicians as the tyranny of a corrupt elite who claim to represent the "real" opinion of the majority. They also suggest that intolerant views have been suppressed through the spiral of silence – even though the contrary: denigrating speech on minorities is known to silence and intimidate those. My hypothesis is that the representation of extremist views by persons in the political power grows the popularity of those views.

Hate Crimes in Hungary During the Coronavirus Outbreak

2020. June 04. 16:34
Petra Bárd
Erik Uszkiewicz
ELTE Faculty of Law, MTA-ELTE Lendület SPECTRA Research Group
Hate Crimes in Hungary During the Coronavirus Outbreak Hate Crimes in Hungary During the Coronavirus Outbreak

The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic does not only take human lives, but it overburdens the healthcare system, jeopardizes the economy, and leads to the virulence of rumours and fake news. At the same time, we are also witnessing the spread of hatred. Bias motivated incidents and crimes against people with South-East Asian descent are spreading in Europe, and hate crimes occur against Europeans and Americans in Africa. Elderly people who are said to be the most vulnerable from the virus and those who are sick are also stigmatized and harassed.

The Responsibility to Protect Principle and State Negligence in Disease Prevention of International Concern

2020. May 20. 15:51
Péter Marton
Tamás Hoffmann
associate professor, Corvinus University of Budapest; senior research fellow, Institute for Legal Studies Centre for Social Sciences, associate professor, Corvinus University of Budapest
The Responsibility to Protect Principle and State Negligence in Disease Prevention of International Concern The Responsibility to Protect Principle and State Negligence in Disease Prevention of International Concern

In the context of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 epidemic, over the course of the last several months, individual states and the World Health Organization expressed varying opinions about what constitutes good practice and responsible conduct in handling a pandemic of this kind. As World Health Organization (WHO) Secretary-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus reiterated in his daily press briefing on March 16, 2020: “Countries must test. They can't fight this blindly. They need to find cases and isolate them. (...) They must be able to test all suspected cases.” That is exactly what many countries either fail to do or do not even strive to accomplish, even as they are already relaxing restrictive measures aimed at curbing the epidemic.

The Covid-19 Pandemic and International Trade

2020. April 17. 16:21
Lukasz Gruszczynski
TK JTI
The Covid-19 Pandemic and International Trade

The Covid-19 pandemic is not only a public health crisis but also a serious challenge for international and domestic politics and for the global economy. The official data shows that the pandemic, as of April 17th, 2020, has already claimed more than 145.000 lives among 2,2 million confirmed cases (for up-to-date information see here). While so far most of the governments have seen an increase in popular support (for example, the approval rating for Giuseppe Conte has gone up by 27%, while for Angela Merkel by 11%, for addition details see here), this trend may soon revert when the economic and social effects of the pandemic will become more apparent. Most of the experts expect to see a deep recession in 2020. For example, the International Monetary Fund, in its latest World Economy Outlook, forecasts that the global economy will shrink by 3%, making the current situation the worst recession since the Great Depression. The advanced economies will be the most affected, with an average contraction of 6.1%, including 5.9% in the United States and 7.5% in the Euro Zone.

Public Money in Political Campaigns. An Analysis on Hungarian State Propaganda

2018. November 19. 16:28
Emese Szilágyi
Junior research fellow, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Social Sciences
Public Money in Political Campaigns. An Analysis on Hungarian State Propaganda

The use of public money in the political decision-making process has always been a controversial issue. The intervention of the state may easily distort the political competition among the different parties and candidates, and is also capable of undermining the open public debate. A special form of the state’s intervention is when the government itself launches its own propaganda-campaign, dubbing it ‘public information campaign’. In the following blogpost I shortly analyze the nature of the publicly founded state propaganda carried out by the Hungarian government between 2015 and the general elections of 2018.

Panpsychism and Personhood

2017. March 29. 15:45
Dragan Dakić
HAS CSS Institute for Legal Studies
Panpsychism and Personhood

What in fact do we value, is it a matter or manifestation? If we consider manifestation to be morally and legally relevant than it is more than crazy to argue that something so small as an electron has inner life and that we should radically rethink our understanding of matter. Why should we bother with truth of matter if it cannot oblige us? 

Tagcloud

alapjogok európai bíróság európai bizottság tagállami mozgástér ttip európai parlament belső piac fogyasztóvédelem tisztességtelen szerződési feltétel jogállamiság diszkrimináció alkotmánybíróság európai központi bank gazdasági és monetáris unió versenyjog kúria állami támogatás uniós értékek demokrácia jogegységi határozat előzetes döntéshozatali eljárás nemzeti érdek közös kereskedelempolitika euró eu alapjogi charta brexit arányosság elve szociális jog irányelvek átültetése european convention of human rights kásler-ítélet fizetésképtelenségi rendelet választás oroszország eusz 7. cikke human trafficking egységes piac európai bizottság elnöke human rights környezetvédelem adatvédelem fenntartható fejlődés ultra vires aktus bevándorlás közös kül- és biztonságpolitika ceta német alkotmánybíróság btk trump nafta közigazgatás wto tpp migráció nemzeti bíróságok russia menekültkérdés fundamental rights strasbourgi bíróság panpsychism szolidaritás ukraine crisis bankunió personhood polgári kezdeményezés magyarország szankció syngamy kötelezettségszegési eljárás environment eu sanctions energiapolitika ecthr európai integráció civil törvény compliance devizakölcsön alkotmányjog prison conditions ukrán válság fővárosi közgyűlés surrogacy európai parlamenti választások fogyatékosok jogai ebh államcsőd közbeszerzés felsőoktatás normakontroll kiotói jegyzőkönyv national courts internet verseny szabadsága magyar helsinki bizottság szülő nők helyzete likviditás külkapcsolatok állampolgárság lex ceu eljárási alkotmányosság versenyképesség adójog consumer protection platformtársadalom halálbüntetés vesztegetés peschka menekült hatáskörmegosztás european court of human rights nemzetközi magánjog közjogtudomány adózás európai politikai pártok; single market adókövetelés hálapénz jogelmélet fal dajkaterhesség környezetvédelmi politika családi jog zaklatás gmo-szabályozás pártfinanszírozás retaliation adatmegőrzési irányelv fizetésképtelenségi eljárás schuman-nyilatkozat dublin iii egyesült királyság áruk szabad áramlása öröklési jog szegregáció beruházásvédelem gmo-mentesség központi bankok európai rendszere európai politikai közösség hungary közerkölcs sokszínű európa alapító atyák vallásszabadság első alkotmánykiegészítés 1951-es genfi egyezmény egészségvédelem uniós polgárság irányelvek szabályozáshoz való jog european neighbourhood policy hatáskör-átruházás politikai pártok european court of justice kisebbségek juncker bizottság obamacare strasbourgi esetjog tényleges életfogytiglan közigazgatási perrendtartás ártatlanság vélelme jog és irodalom elsőbbség elve kohéziós politika sokféleség energiahatékonysági irányelv születésszabályozás parlament európai bíróság elnöke új btk. általános közigazgatási rendtartás alapjogi charta legitimáció erdély ukraine régió fizetésképtelenség; energiaunió eurasian economic union hobby lobby véleménynyilvánítás szabadsága lenaerts törökország kikényszerítés konferencia székelyföld autonomy of eu legal order jogharmonizáció; dcfta büntetőjog média hatékony jogvédelem szabadságvesztés történelmi konfliktusok személyek szabad mozgása law in literature uk report inviolability of eu legal order csődjog; jogos védelem országgyűlés franciaország uniós válságkezelés európai jog szociális deficit law as literature európai szomszédságpolitika mulhaupt european values többségi demokrácia; european central bank áldozatvédelem sajtószabadság németország lojális együttműködés európai tanács európai emberi jogi egyezmény letelepedés szabadsága lengyel alkotmánybíróság brit jelentés olaszország népszavazás german constitutional court végrehajtás válság lengyelország ingatlanadó-követelés article 7 teu common commercial policy omt értékközösség egyesülési jog szíria uniós jog sérthetetlensége kiskereskedelmi különadó jogállamiság-védelmi mechanizmus excessive deficit nyilvános meghallgatás rule of law egyenlő bánásmód görögország muršić érdekközösség velencei bizottság lengyel alkotmánybíróság uniós jog autonómiája eu klímapolitika exclusionarism kommunikáció democracy európai unió alapjogi ügynoksége emberi méltóság pénzügyi válság ügynökprobléma gazdasági szankciók civil jogállamiság infrastruktúrához való hozzáférés kvótakereskedelem protectionism datafication reklámadó