Annual report 2020

Annual Report 01 January 2020 – 31 December 2020
Centre for Social Sciences, Institute for Legal Studies
1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán street 4.
Postal Address: 1250 Budapest, P.O.B. 20.
Tel: (1) 355 7384; fax: (1) 375 7858
Director: Gárdos-Orosz, Fruzsina Kinga


I . Main achievements of the Institute for the year 2020

Lack of Rights Consciousness in the Legal Cultures of Central-Europe and Balkans. Myth or Reality? A comparative legal cultures project (NKFI-125520)

Topic area: 3. Human resources: society, economy, history, archaeology, humanities, language

In the research program launched in October 2017, the researchers of the Institute examined a slice of the Hungarian legal culture and the attitudes expressive of right consciousness. Their research was carried out in an international comparative perspective, together with Dutch, Hungarian and Serbian analyses conducted in parallel. In the first year, the theoretical foundations of the research were established, with special regard to learning about and utilizing international results.

The members of the research team developed their own concept of empowerment, which synthesizes known approaches.

The researchers of the project found that the concept of rights consciousness is not directly applicable to empirical analytical purposes, mainly due to its complexity and multidimensionality. Therefore, the concept of rights consciousness has been divided into three components, which, when examined together, make it possible to define and operationalise rights consciousness in a scientifically convincing way. These three components are: (i) the legal vigilance component, (ii) the rights identification component, and (iii) the legal mobilisation component. This was followed by an analysis of the data for the three components.

As part of the project, the participating researchers completed an analysis of the results of a large-sample questionnaire survey across the three countries. The members of the research group summarized the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the empirical analysis of entitlement culture, and they presented their research results on the three components.

In the first quarter of 2020, data related to the legal mobilization component were analysed and the results were presented. This captures the momentum of decision-making and the motivations behind this decision: the reasons why someone decides to initiate or not to initiate legal proceedings – although formally given every opportunity to do so – in a conflict situation. The sociologically relevant and an empirically plausible sense of rights consciousness in everyday life includes not only the identification of the legal dimension of conflict situations and its decoding in legal language, but also the fact that a decision is consciously taken in favour of using some enforcement mechanism. This willingness can be examined with regard to the attitudes towards legal proceedings.

The qualitative research methods enable analysing the collected data as numbers using statistical operations. One such research method is the questionnaire. Another element of the methodology used in the project was expert interviews about rights consciousness. Quantitative research methods focus on spoken language, words (phrasing, expressions used), thinking, behaviour, human manifestations. This is one of the most widely used qualitative research methods. In the case of an expert interview, the respondent has special knowledge and experience on a specific topic that belongs to the field of research. According to the approach of the research project, qualitative and quantitative research methods are not mutually exclusive approaches, during a research program they can complement each other and provide more complex answers to basic research questions.

The results of the expert interviews were also presented in the first half of 2020.

The results of the research have been presented in articles published by both domestic and well-known international publishers, in particular:

“Some Specific Central European Experiences May Help to Increase Understanding of the Legal Reality in the Western Countries”. Interview with Balázs Fekete In Droit et société Volume 104, Issue 1, January 2020, pages 149 to 157.

Fekete Balázs: Jogi kultúra és jogosultságkultúra. Egy lehetséges fogalmi háló vázlata. In: Miskolci Jogi Szemle XV. évfolyam 2020 1. különszám


MTA Lendület HPOPS – Lendület-HPOPs Regulatory Change

Topic area: 3. Human resources: society, economy, history, archaeology, humanities, language

The research group examines the legal boundaries of Hungary’s public policy opportunities within the European Union. For a long time now, political, historical and legal analyses focusing on the EU have payed attention to the changes in legislation and the process of implementing certain requirements in line with EU requirements. However, the exact rules are contained in EU law, and the implementation process is always greatly influenced by policy decisions.

Much of the previous research has focused on the political fundamentals behind EU public policy decisions (the issue of democratic expectations and legitimacy), ideological considerations (neoliberal and social market economy approaches), their scope (unification or approximation), and structural gaps in public policy asymmetry (the gap between legal decisions) and focuses on impacts at a national level (institutional incompatibility) from a critical perspective.

The main goal of the present research is to review the previous results with the help of an in-depth empirical methodology on Hungarian economic and social regulations, which can be used to set up a new theoretical framework for the transformation of individual national legal institutions.

In order to achieve this, the researchers of the project will use a legal empirical methodology to investigate the economic and social changes that took place in Hungary between 1990 and 2020, and the results of the research will also make a significant contribution to the international academic discourse about institutional changes in the EU.

The first results are summarized in the monograph of the research leader, Márton Varju, published by the well-known publisher Routledge, entitled ‘Member State Interests and European Union Law - Revisiting the Foundations of Member State Obligations’.

The monograph examines the European Union's expectations of the member states from the perspective of the considerations followed by national governments. Since national considerations are both the starting point and the limits of the commitments they undertake. This study does not seek to criticise EU law directly, but it does provide a theoretical framework for analysing EU written law and practice in a way that takes account of political realities.

The study considers the national interests, institutional backgrounds, social and economic differences of the EU member states, and also explores how this diversity is reflected in EU legislation and law enforcement, which then has an impact on the day-to-day political realities of nation states. The aim of the monograph is to bridge the gap between the political and legal dimensions in the analysis of the functioning of the European Union.


The responsiveness of the Hungarian legal system 2010-2018 (FK 129018)

Topic area: 3. Human resources: society, economy, history, archaeology, humanities, language

The researchers examine how the Hungarian legal system responded to social, economic, political scientific and technical challenges between 2010 and 2018. The aim of the research is to address the structural effects of the social level challenges identified by Hungarian social science research in recent years on the Hungarian legal system, focusing on the description of the general adaptive and assimilation learning capacity of the Hungarian legal system.

The study will analyse when, how and how effectively the legal system responds to challenges in order to maintain its regulatory and social governance role (responsiveness), through the legislative process, by producing case studies representative of the main areas of law, based on a full mapping database and qualitative analysis. In other words, the research examines whether the legal system is able to assimilate new phenomena into the existing doctrinal system, or whether there is a significant change or accommodation of the system. During the construction of the legal database and the analysis using the usual legal methods (including historical, analytical, dogmatic and other methods), the research sub-groups determine the most important changes in the field of law, whether this change was at the level of legislation or judicial or official application. After the expert analysis and selection, they produce case studies from the most relevant cases. The research also attempts to measure “response time” and link it to explanatory variables.

The objective of the research is to undertake representative foundational research that analyses the societal challenges identified by the social sciences in recent years with scientific rigour, focusing primarily on the general ability of the Hungarian legal system to learn trough adaptation and assimilation.

The basic question of the research is the responsiveness of the Hungarian legal system in special circumstances that can be compared to the situation at the time of the change of regime. The question is what effects and changes in the legal system are caused by specific social circumstances (such as the global economic crisis, migration, the changing role of the EU, the changing political system), and on which variables (specificity of the legal field, nature of the social problem, time of emergence, political environment, etc.) the manner, fact and extent of change depend.

The researchers participating in the research group presented their research results in October 2020 in a two-day workshop, in six sessions, during which they discussed the theoretical approaches underlying the research, followed by the results of the studies on the different fields of law, in particular criminal law, European Union law, administrative law and constitutional law.

Detailed programme of the workshop (HU)


Epidemiology and jurisprudence research project

Topic area: 3. Human resources: society, economy, history, archaeology, humanities, language

In view of the epidemiological situation, the Institute launched a research project entitled “Epidemiology and Jurisprudence” in connection with research entitled “Responsiveness of the Hungarian legal system between 2010 and 2018” (FK 129018) which is funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office. In this extraordinary situation, the project was a priority for the Institute's activities in 2020.

The research assumed that at the current stage of control, until an effective vaccine or medicine is developed, in addition to certain medical measures such as testing and the handling of known cases, regulatory measures, standards, prohibitions and incentives play an important role. Using these kind of tools raises several questions that jurisprudence can answer. These measures may not only go beyond the usual legal framework, but they are often significantly different from the logic of individual rights and the usual methods used to influence human behaviour. In many cases, the situation disadvantages the person in a way that it is not related to any reprehensible conduct - intentional or negligent. To illustrate with a few examples: a quarantine is a severe restriction of rights. However, in many cases the persons who must stay in quarantine find themselves in the situation unintentionally, however as they are unable to replace their lost income, they have no interest in reporting the circumstances on which the quarantine is based. Another example: wearing a mask is uncomfortable and expensive; moreover, it protects other people from infection in the first place, so it is against the individual interest, and so on. There are also many cases that go directly against the majority of people's sense of justice, such as vaccinating or screening people at risk through no fault of their own to protect the whole population, or screening people free who do not pay social security contributions through no fault of their own. The question is whether such new living conditions should be dealt with by traditional or new legal methods.

The research raised issues such as the application of the principle of clausula rebus sic stantibus in private law and labour law during the epidemic. In the area of market and competition regulation, we can look at changes in the state aid system, the market distorting effects of epidemiological measures and attempts to reduce these effects, or the problem of media regulation. Administrative law colleagues reviewed the classical institutions of health and epidemiological regulation and the sanctions and procedures of administrative law. The constitutional law group analysed the special legal regime and its constitutional safeguards, as well as certain legal restrictions, and focused on some relevant issues of data protection. In the area of criminal law, it has become necessary to analyse the criminal aspects of infection:

The results of the research were continuously published in an open access form on the appropriate publication forums of the Institute for Legal Studies, and a collection of these is available (HU). A monograph edited from the studies of the researchers involved in the project, ‘Legal Diagnoses: The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Legal System’, was published by L’Harmattan at the end of 2020.


Recent criminal law regulations – in legal consciousness (NKFIA K-125378)

Topic area: 3. Human resources: society, economy, history, archaeology, humanities, language

This “OTKA” research was completed in the year 2020. The questionnaire legal survey of the project researchers undertook to map the knowledge and the opinions on criminal law regulation (and its novelties). It was found that the level of legal knowledge among lay people is not very high in terms of criminal law: the average citizen was aware in every second case of whether an act is punishable. The attitude of lay people towards criminal law is punitive. Most of the acts investigated would be punished, and if the law in force does so, they will meet with that opinion to the greatest extent.

Based on a detailed analysis of the relationship between knowledge and opinions, it can be stated that the responses about knowledge are largely opinion-driven. Most respondents agree with what they consider (rightly or wrongly) to be itemized legislation. Based on the data, it cannot be confirmed that legal awareness would be significantly affected by socio-economic factors, media consumption or criminal involvement. The research hypothesis that the time since the entry into force of the legislation is associated with higher levels of legal knowledge has been confirmed. However, the degree of novelty of the regulation is only a factor of subordinate importance, which blends into the system of general laws described above for factors influencing legal awareness of criminal law.

In 2020, the two researchers of the project reported on the results of the work carried out in several domestic and international publications such as in the open access Hungarian journal of the Institute, ‘Állam-és Jogtudomány’, in the electronic journal,, in the Q2 internationally classified Intersections journal in English, and in the open access MTA Law Working Papers series.


Populism and Public Policy in Law Making (K 129245)

Topic area: 3. Human resources: society, economy, history, archaeology, humanities, language

It is the second year of the ‘OTKA’ research carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Political Science. The researchers analyse the main characteristics of populism in processes of public policy and law making. They survey the main motivations and decision making patterns behind the actions of populist politicians, in order to assist citizens, civil society, and media in better understanding populist public policy. The main research questions are: (1) what are the typical patterns of public policy processes in populist-dominated governance? and (2) what are the distinctive features of populist legislation? A further objective is to understand the mechanisms that support the survival of populism in government, which implies a third research question: in what ways are populist parties able to deal with the challenges of governance and survive between election cycles?

An (online) workshop was held in December 2020, during which the participating researchers discussed the results of the work carried out and reported on the studies in the publication phase. The programme of the event is available (HU).


II. Results of Scientific Organization, Events

1.Description of The Scientific Work of The Institute

The most important task of the Centre for Social Sciences, Institute for Legal Studies is to carry out basic research of international standard in the field of law. Basic research is one whose primary target audience is the community of researchers and educators. Within basic research, the most important and specifically institutional task is to implement large-scale projects with the participation of several researchers in different fields of law, for which university workshops are less suitable due to their situation.

The following are considered to be secondary tasks: performing domestic and foreign science organization tasks; cooperation with domestic and international scientific workshops; hosting foreign researchers; strengthening citizens' legal awareness, promoting scientific results and making them available to the public.

The tertiary tasks of the Institute are legislative advice, training and expert advice, and the preparation of expert opinions. However, the Institute, as an institution, shall assume such a role only if (a) it is expressly requested to do so by agencies empowered by the law or (b) if the mandate also provides significant theoretical benefits, and (c) appropriate remuneration is paid to the Institute.

The staff of the Institute was strengthened in the year under review by a foreign citizen, a Polish researcher.

From January 2020, the Institute for Legal Studies has been operating according to a new department structure, which reflects the aspiration of our Institute to cover all the important areas of the practice of law through its research and science organization activities. Departments within the Institute for Legal Studies are administrative organizational units, established along broadly understood research fields. In order to move from one department to another, researchers need the approval of the Director. Every researcher is a member of one and only one department. Naturally, the researchers of the different departments collaborate on research projects in the spirit of interdisciplinarity.

The names of departments reflect the research priorities of the Institute and guide the broadening of personnel. The responsibility for the tasks related to the functioning of each department rests with the Head of Department.

Departments of the Institute:

  • Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law
  • Department of Criminal Law
  • Department of European Union Law and International Law
  • Department of Legal Theory, the Sociology of Law and the History of Law
  • Department of Private Law


2. The Relation Between Science and Society, Social Utility

The Institute for Legal Studies contributes to the development of domestic jurisprudence and participates in the organisation of the activities of the domestic scientific community. To this end, it cooperates with domestic academic workshops and other research centres, mostly organised alongside universities, and provides a forum for the discussion of topical issues in the field of law.

In addition to its research activities, in order to make the results of legal research available not only to a narrow professional public but also to decision-makers, legislators, law practitioners and citizens seeking justice, the Institute also performs the following other scientific and educational tasks:

  • Publication of journals and other publications: among the many publication forums of the Institute the open access journals deserve a special mention:
    • The Hungarian journal, “Állam- és Jogtudomány” publishes the best legal studies after double-blind proofreading, primarily for the professional public;
    • The MTA Law Working Papers is the Institute's fast-publishing, easy-to-search electronic publication, which allows the first results to be disseminated widely as soon as possible;
    • The JTI blog summarizes the most up-to-date legal research findings for the lay public in a concise and comprehensible form.
    • The Institute for Legal Studies publishes a series of monographs entitled “Jogtudományi alapkutatások”. The aim of the electronic monograph series is to provide an opportunity to publish a high-quality Hungarian-language basic research monograph every year, as well as general and free access. The Institute for Legal Studies undertakes to prepare the work in electronic format. The completed e-book is available on the Institute's website, and the Institute also finances a limited number of printed copies of the book.
  • The Institute publishes a Newsletter of Legal Studies (in Hungarian) in every two weeks, which also reaches the non-researcher lawyers.
  • The Institute’s prestigious international scientific journal is the double-blind peer review of Acta Juridica, which was already listed as a Q3-rated journal in 2020.
  • JTI operates Jurisprudence Search, which allows for a quick and efficient search of a diverse database of jurisprudence.
  • Professional training and consultancy, preparation of expert opinions: the training program "EEUStAID" was completed in the first quarter of 2020, which is a European Union legal training program for judges and court staff in Central and Eastern Europe. The program was implemented by the Institute for Legal Studies in cooperation with Lexcellence, European Community Law and Regulatory Consulting LLC funded by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Competition under the Training of National Judges program. The main objective of the training is to develop the application and enforcement of EU state aid law in national courts; training information and training materials are available on the program’s own website.
  • Contributing to solving domestic and international legislative problems.
  • Cooperation with domestic and international institutions engaged in law enforcement activities: JTI cooperates with experts from the Curia of Hungary and the Constitutional Court in several research programs, e.g. in the activity analysis of the case law of the Curia, as well as in the research project entitled ‘The responsiveness of the Hungarian legal system 2010-2018’, and 100 decisions of principle of the Constitutional Court in large-scale research 1990–2020.




3. The most important national and international R&D&I collaborations in the last two years

1. Corporate relations, relations with the public budget, non-profit and government sectors;

The Institute for Legal Studies regularly works on projects with the Constitutional Court and the Curia of Hungary, which are the most important actors in the application of law in Hungary.

Among his corporate contacts, the most notable is HVG-Orac, an academic publisher of legal databases and services, with whom it is collaborating on the development of the Internet Encyclopedia of Legal Studies, in partnership with Pázmány Péter Catholic University, with ELTE Faculty of Law and University of Szeged Faculty of Law.

2. Collaborations with higher education: education, youth education, doctoral schools, etc.

The co-workers of the Institute for Legal Studies joins the activities of the outstanding legal training places in Hungary as lecturers: University of Debrecen Faculty of Law, University of Szeged Faculty of Law, University of Pécs Faculty of Law, University of Public Service, University of Győr (Széchényi István University) – Deák Ferenc Faculty of Law,  Pázmány Péter Catholic University Faculty of Law and Political Science, Károli Gáspár University of Reformed Church of Hungary Faculty of Law, Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Law as well as the education at the Corvinus University of Budapest.

3. Other collaborations and contacts

The Institute for Legal Studies has an extensive international network of connections, with many researchers being members of international academic institutions. Among these collaborations, two research groups, set up by the Institute's staff within the framework of The International Association of Constitutional Law, deserve special mention:

  • The Constitutional Interpretation international research group was formed with 32 members. The first large-scale international conference of the research group took place in December 2019 in Budapest. Organized by the Institute, it was entitled Constitutional Interpretation in European Populist Regimes. The program of the conference I available online.
  • The international research group Identity, Race and Ethnicity in Constitutional Law, which has nearly 50 members, is interdisciplinary in nature and includes not only lawyers but also renowned experts in sociology.



4. Innovation and Applications of the Institute in The Last Two Years:

Tenders won by the Institute in the last two years: presentation of some significant tenders:


Legal Operationalization of Nationality and Ethnicity (134962)

The internationally unique NKFI-OTKA research, launched on 1 September 2020 led by András László Pap, provides an opportunity for researchers working in various fields of law to examine the complex and multifaceted issues of the conceptual definition and legal operationalization of national and ethnic identity. The practical rationale for the research is that the uncertainty surrounding the identification of targeted entities in the application of minority rights and social equality institutions not only jeopardizes the achievement of legislative objectives, but also allows for discrimination and further marginalization. The aim of the research is not only to define a stable theoretical framework, but also to provide guidelines for good and bad (contradictory) practices and models that can be used by law and public policy makers as well as law enforcers.

The starting point of the research is that the definition of nationality and ethnicity categories (whether they refer to the identification of a group or the affiliation of entities) is surrounded by a significant degree of political, theoretical and legal uncertainty. The operationalization of concepts and different policies is also a multifaceted issue: entities can be defined by self-reporting, by members of the community concerned (elected or self-proclaimed, and thus raising a number of legitimacy questions), by the perception of the outside world, or by an "objective" set of criteria (based on various indicators) defined by the legislator. Most legal systems, for a variety of reasons and sensitivities, are mostly averse to a precise legal definition.

In defining the categories of nationality, ethnicity, and race, the research focuses on the content of legal and political community claims and legal institutions. It is our thesis that when defining group and especially group affiliation, legal technical solutions and models must be adapted to the public policy and legal philosophical framework. The uniqueness of the content of the research lies in the fact that it draws a new, comparative legal and at the same time comprehensive map of the problems of classification and conceptualisation, in addition, by providing illuminating case studies with considerable added value it offers solutions for social science, jurisprudence and the legislator and practitioner.

The research creates collaborations that promise innovative results for researchers from different fields of law, and opens up new opportunities for international co-operation, not only by providing regular appearances at international conferences and professional events (by discussing and presenting the theoretical framework and results of research), but it also includes the invitation of leading international researchers and actively builds on the involvement of the leading researcher in the ‘Research Group on Identity, Race and Ethnicity in Constitutional Law’ under the auspices of the International Association of Constitutional Law (IACL).

In addition to the researchers of the Institute for Legal Studies, the Centre for Social Sciences

Institute for Minority Studies and other external researchers are involved in the project.


EEUStAID – Building of Central and Eastern European judicial capacities for the enforcement of EU State aid law project was implemented in 2019 and 2020.

In the project, nearly 30 judges from 8 Central and Eastern European countries were trained in EU state aid law by the staff of the Institute of Law with the help of external partners. In addition to more general issues of EU state aid law, the training covered legislation on the roles and responsibilities of national courts. The special legal knowledge gained during the implementation of the training program will be available to the international and domestic professional public on the website just launched.


Artificial Intelligence National Laboratory (MILAB): Challenges in the legal environment of artificial intelligence

The Centre for Social Science also participates in the operation of MILAB as a project partner, and the researchers of the Institute for Legal Studies also play an enormous role in the research work. In the project launched in 2020, JTI researchers undertook to publish papers in high-quality international journals in addition to mapping the domestic legal regulation of artificial intelligence. Within the operation of MILAB, examining the challenges of the legal environment of artificial intelligence is the sub-project of the Institute for Legal Studies. The project supports the achievement of the objectives set out in the AI Strategy. The declared goal is to identify problems in current and future legal environment of AI. The specificities of AI may make the application and implementation of the legislation more difficult, and it is therefore necessary to examine whether the current legislation is able to manage the risks or whether changes to the legislation or the development of entirely new regulations may be necessary in the future.

During the project, researchers will assess sector-specific legal issues and provide a resolution (expert opinion) to the members of the consortium. They also carry out basic legal research to identify possible directions, identify good practices in the field of AI within the different branches of law, in particular with regard to the legal framework developed by the EU, and contribute to the development of scientific/professional discourse. Based on all this, specific, effective legal recommendations are made for the regulatory environment. The project also concerns the application of text mining methods in the field of law, which may facilitate the quantitative analysis of legal texts.


5. Scientific publications:

A list of the 15 most important scientific publications by the Institute in 2020, indicating the repository link (REAL or other accredited).

  1. Chronowski, Nóra, Bárd Petra, Sulyok Gábor, Varju Márton: Hungary: Constitutional (R)evolution or Regression? National Constitutions in European and Global Governance: Democracy, Rights, the Rule of Law – National Reports (eds. Anneli Albi and Samo Bardutzky), print ISBN 978-94-6265-272-9, e-book ISBN 978-94-6265-273-6, T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague 2019. 1439-1488.
  2. Gruszczynski, Lukasz, Margherita Melillo: The FCTC dilemma on heated tobacco products Globalization and Health. IF2: 2.525, IF5: 3.127 1.272 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-020-00596-x
  3. Gruszczynski, Lukasz: The COVID-19 Pandemic and International Trade: Temporary Turbulence or Paradigm Shift? European Journal of Risk Regulation (2020), 1-6. doi:10.1017/err.2020.29. Q2, SJR 0.33
  4. Hoffmann, Tamás: The Crime of Genocide in Its (Nearly) Infinite Domestic Variety. Marco Odello, Piotr ¸ubiƒski (eds.) The Concept of Genocide in International Criminal Law - Developments after Lemkin (Routledge, 2020) 67-97.
  5. Pap, András László: Neglect, Marginalization, and Abuse: Hate Crime Legislation and Practice in the Labyrinth of Identity Politics, Minority Protection, and Penal Populism. Pap, A. (2020). Neglect, Marginalization, and Abuse: Hate Crime Legislation and Practice in the Labyrinth of Identity Politics, Minority Protection, and Penal Populism. Nationalities Papers, 1-19. doi:10.1017/nps.2020.21. IF 0,728 0.48 SJR 2019 DOI: 10.1017/nps.2020.21
  6. Papp, Mónika, Varju Márton: Member State Capitalism(s) and EU Law: Protecting Local Varieties in the Single Market. Nagy, Csongor István (szerk.) World Trade and Local Public Interest: Trade Liberalization and National Regulatory Sovereignty Heidelberg, Németország : Springer International Publishing, (2020) pp. 95-115
  7. Szép, Viktor, Peter Van Elsuwege: EU Sanctions Policy and the Alignment of Third Countries: Relevant Experiences for the UK? Routledge, Abingdon, 2020
  8. Varju Márton: 5G Networks, (Cyber)Security Harmonisation and the Internal Market: the Limits of Article 114 TFEU EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 45 : 4 pp. 471-486. 16 p. (2020) Q2
  9. Varju, Márton: Member State interests and European Union law Abingdon, Egyesült Királyság: Routledge (2020)
  10. Gárdos-Orosz, Fruzsina: Covid-19 and the responsiveness of the Hungarian constitutional system. In: Serna, de la Graza J (szerk.) Covid-19 and Constitutional Law. Covid-19 et droit constitutionnel Ciudad de México, Mexikó : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (2020) pp. 157-165.
  11. Gárdos-Orosz, Fruzsina (szerk.) ; Lőrincz, Viktor Olivér (szerk.): Jogi diagnózisok: a COVID-19-világjárvány hatásai a jogrendszerre Budapest, Magyarország : L'Harmattan Kiadó, Társadalomtudományi Kutatóközpont Jogtudományi Intézet (2020)
  12. Szente, Zoltán: Constitution-making processes in Europe since the Second World War In: Martin, Belov; Antoni, Abat i Ninet (szerk.) Revolution, Transition, Memory, and Oblivion. Reflections on Constitutional Change Cheltenham, Egyesült Királyság / Anglia : Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. (2020) 264 p. pp. 168-183.
  13. Fekete, Balázs (szerk.) ; Molnár, András (szerk.): Iustitia emlékezik: Tanulmányok a "jog és irodalom" köréből Budapest, Magyarország : Társadalomtudományi Kutatóközpont Jogtudományi Intézet (2020) , 288 p.
  14. Fekete, Balázs: Some Specific Central European Experiences May Help to Increase Understanding of the Legal Reality in The Western Countries REVUE DROIT ET SOCIETE : 104 pp. 149-157. , 9 p. (2020)
  15. Hungler, Sára: The Dual Nature of Employee Involvement Paris, Franciaország , Budapest, Magyarország : Éditions L'Harmattan (2020)
  16. Ződi, Zsolt ; Lőrincz, Viktor Olivér: Bezüge auf das Grundgesetz und die Rechtsprechung des Verfassungsgerichts in der Praxis der ordentlichen Gerichte, 2012-2016 In: Péter, Darák; Hanno, Kube; Fruzsina, Molnár-Gábor; Ekkehart, Reimer (szerk.) Rechtsprechung im Dialog der Gerichte auf innerstaatlicher und europarechtlicher Ebene am Beispiel Ungarns und Deutschlands Budapest, Magyarország : Kúria (2020) pp. 17-38.